Ingredient Details

Detailed information about the efficacy and mechanism of
each ingredient found in BioSpectrum GI

STANDARDIZED LIGNITE EXTRACT

Biochemical Redox– Intestinal Barrier Support

BioSpectrum GI features our standardized LIGNITE EXTRACT.
Properly extracted Lignite Extract has been shown to provide the redox capacity, electrochemical balance, energetic support, ancient plant material metabolites, and detoxification actions that can help restore and support intestinal barrier integrity, tight junction function, and more optimum GI Health.
Our raw lignite is carefully chosen for its mineral and element profile, average carbon molecular size and weight, and superior raw redox potential.
To produce the high-quality lignite extract, our raw lignite must be processed and purified at a highly-alkaline pH during laboratory processes. This is essential to release - and at the same time preserve as an extract - its ancient natural, energetic biochemical redox capacity “battery” power that has been stored for millions of years.

This ancient natural biochemical redox “battery” capacity can be used by the GI intestinal cells to restore, “charge-up” and power cellular functions including tight junction integrity. It can also be used by cells to provide the millivolts needed for cell-division to take place so new, healthy cells can be produced to help heal tissue and further restore the integrity of the intestinal barrier.

Our Lignite Extract is carefully dried to so it can be standardized and added as an ingredient to achieve consistent results. Liquid lignite extracts vary in concentration and are not as stable as dried, standardized lignite extract. Practitioners have used lignite extracts for at least a decade in the US. Recent in-vitro laboratory findings help to validate what they have known and seen in their practices during this time – Lignite extracts support GI Health.

Lignite deposits are semi-fossilized metabolites and remains of ancient plant material that lived millions of years ago. As this ancient plant material died, bacteria digested the plant fiber and other plant materials and broke it down to its metabolites. The right temperature and moisture, pressure and time dictated how far along the humification process a particular deposit would proceed - many stages of humification exist from humus to peat to coal. The Lignite stage is a perfect stage for the richness of materials found in the lignite deposit to be extracted.

Lignite extracts have been studied and shown to provide needed minerals and elements that aren’t in our food sources or missing because food isn’t broken down well due to a lack of stomach acid, poor enzyme production, or an unhealthy microbiome. These minerals and elements nourish GI intestinal cells, as well as the cells of the entire body.

It is also postulated that Lignite extract contains the ancient bacterial metabolites and the biochemical capacity that may help take the place of the missing metabolites and biochemical redox capacity caused by a compromised Microbiome. Our Microbiome refers to the sum of the sum of the microbes that live in our GI tract and have influences in our bodies and our health. A healthy Microbiome would normally produce the needed materials (enzymes, minerals, and elements) from our food directly (or indirectly through their own metabolism) and electrochemical balance to support healthy GI intestinal cells and a strong intestinal barrier. If this is the case, lignite extract could potentially pave the way to restore intestinal integrity- a healthy mucosal lining. Doing so would potentially create a healthier Microbiome as a result which would have far reaching effects on our overall health. (Read more about in The American Society for Microbiology’s FAQ – The Human Microbiome under the Resources Tab).

These Lignite extract minerals and elements also provide the very important function of restoring and maintaining a healthy fluid and electrolyte balance of the entire body. Many people do not understand how important this can be. When the body receives the nutrition that it needs, including electrolytes (minerals and elements) and water, detoxification and waste elimination occurs pretty regularly. When there is an electrolyte (minerals and elements) and/or fluid imbalance, the body will retain fecal material and continually try to absorb these missing minerals and water from the colon. Unfortunately this also includes the toxins that come with them from chronic impacted fecal material.

Interestingly, lignite extracts can help prevent this state of “auto-intoxication”. Additionally, the large, highly-charged carbon, oxygen, and hydrogen molecular structure of lignite extract can recognize undesirable metals, herbicides, weed-killers, pesticides and other toxins and help escort them through the GI tract out of the body. The large lignite molecules are not easily absorbed because of their size, so they remain in the GI tract providing Biochemical Redox support, electrochemical balance, and detoxification throughout its length.

Our Lignite extract is included to help form a stronger intestinal barrier and improved tight junction function that may result through its potent biochemical Redox contributions.

IMMULOX®

Immune Factor enriched Colostrum providing Natural Immune Factors and Advanced Immune System
Modulation Support

Immulox® is a specialized colostrum that is enriched with extra immune factors such as Immunoglobulins and PRPs for advanced IMMUNE SYSTEM MODULATION.

Immulox® is low heat processed bovine colostrum for maximum biological activity and is antibiotic and rBST free. It also supplies immune factors, growth factors, vitamins and minerals to ensure health and vitality for young and old alike.

Immulox® colostrum is actually 40 times richer in immune factors than human colostrum and its biological benefits are transferable to humans.

Immulox® helps Balance and Modulate the Immune System Naturally

Key Benefits
Immulox® Colostrum has High Levels of IgG and PRPs important to support immune system activity and immune system modulation
Natural Source of Immunoglobulins IgA, IgD, IgE, IgG, IgM - Antibodies
Immulox® Supports The Immune System –regulates up and down for perfect balance
Maintains Healthy Gut
Helps Accelerate Healing of all Body Tissue
Helps Increase Bone and Lean Muscle Mass

Support For Healthy Cognition
IMMULOX’s® IMPORTANT IMMUNE SYSTEM FACTORS AND MODULATORS

Immunoglobulins – Immune System Antibodies
Immunoglobulins (Antibodies) are proteins made by the immune system that act as a critical part of the immune response by specifically recognizing and binding to particular antigens, such as bacteria or viruses and aiding in their destruction.

Immune support and protection in the form of bovine colostrum immunoglobulin antibodies have been shown to provide local protection to the gastrointestinal tract.

Immunoglobulins (A, D, E, G and M) – are the most abundant of the immune factors found in colostrum; IgG neutralizes toxins and microbes in the lymph and circulatory system; IgM destroys bacteria while IgE and IgD are highly antiviral. Immunoglobulins have been documented to provide a superior defense in both treatment and prevention of viral infections, bacteria and yeast.

Proline-Rich Polypeptides (PRPs) – Immune System Modulation

Proline-Rich Polypeptides (PRPs) regulate the thymus gland, stimulating an under active immune system or down-regulating an overactive immune system as seen in autoimmune disease. IMMULOX contains a minimum of 12% PRPs; a very high standard.

PRPs (proline-rich polypeptides) are tiny information carrying proteins with amazing adaptability. In times of intense physical stress, they enhance immune activity by promoting the production of cytokines. Cytokines include anyof a number of substances, such as interferon, interleukin, and growth factors that are secreted by certain cells of the immune system and have an effect on other cells.

In the opposite situation, when a healthy immune system reacts to environmental factors through cytokine production, PRPs send signals via specific cell receptor sites on activated macrophages and activated T-cells (both important immune cells) to decrease the production of cytokines in order to balance the immune system.

PRPs inhibit the overproduction of pro-inflammatory cytokines and reduce the major symptoms of autoimmune disease: pain, swelling and inflammation.

OTHER IMPORTANT IMMUNE FACTORS AND MODULATORS
Gut pathogens are handled well by colostrum without side effects. Colostrum is composed of numerous immune factors and immune system modulators especially the immunoglobulins, PRPs (Proline-rich polypeptides),and also lactoferrin, the cytokines, leukocytes (interferon), Enzyme oxidases, Lysozymes, Lymphokines (hormone-like peptides that mediate immune response), Oligo Polysaccharides and Glycoconjugates and more.

DID YOU KNOW?
About 75% of the antibodies (Immunoglobulins) in the body are produced by the GI component of the immune system. The ability of immune compromised patients to fight infectious disease is severely limited by damage to the gut from chronic inflammation and opportunistic infections.
Several recent studies report colostrum’s role in the reversal of this chronic problem stemming from opportunistic infections like Candida albicans, Cryptosporidia, rotavirus, herpes simplex, pathogenic strains of E. Coli and intestinal flu infections.

Immulox® Colostrum is at least 3 times more effective than vaccination in preventing flu evidence from a high-risk population study.

IMPORTANT COLOSTRAL GROWTH FACTORS
Growth Factors help stimulate cell and tissue growth by stimulating DNA formation and are found in naturally high concentrations in colostrum.
Growth Factors have been shown to accelerate healing.
Several studies show that these growth factors are capable of increasing T-cell production, accelerating healing, balancing blood glucose, reducing insulin need, and increasing muscle and bone growth and repair while metabolizing fat for fuel.
Epithelial growth factor (EgF)
Platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF)
Insulin-like growth factor-I and II (IGF-1 and IGF-II)
Transforming growth factors α & β (TGF-α and TGF-β)
Fibroblast growth factor (FgF)
Growth hormone (GH)

IMMULOX’s® NUTRITIONAL COMPONENTS
Colostrum is a combination of vitamins, minerals, and amino acids that are naturally occurring in a perfect combination.
Vitamins A, B1, B2, B6, B12, and E are found, while traces of all other vitamins, as well as minerals such as calcium, sodium, magnesium and zinc, are also present. Colostrum is a rich source of both essential and non-essential amino acids, as well as essential fats, including phospholipids, which enable colostral protein protection and easy absorption in the gut by forming liposomes around them.

 

Propol®A - Glucomannan Prebiotic fiber

Propol®A is a purified, stable, long-chain, high-molecular weight Prebiotic clinically proven to increase Bifidobacterium strains (good probiotics) naturally by over 10% in 30 days. This dramatic change took place without any Probiotic supplements.

BioSpectrum GITM Pro features Propol® A Propolmannan. Propolmannan is a highly-purified, natural, soluble prebiotic fiber with the longest glucomannan chain fiber in Nature.

Propol®A is created from Amorphophallus konjac root - a rich source of glucomannon soluble fiber. Propol® A is produced by Shimazu, a Japanese company that has been developing konjac root tubers and refining konjac root fiber processing for over 300 years. There are many different sources of konjac root. Shimazu has perfected their tubers and processes to yield a pure, high-performance fiber with exceptional viscosity (over 100,000 mPa*s), solubility, stability, length of fiber, and overall functionality to support optimal GI health benefits.

Propol®A hasalso been extensively studied to support GI and overall health benefits including:

Prebiotic activity and probiotic / microbiome bacterial support.
In one microbiome animal study mimicking the Human Microbiome, Propol®A showed an incredible 17% increase in Bifidobacterium strains in just 30 days. Propol®A has also increased the fecal concentrations of lactobacilli and total bacteria. In addition, gut fermentation by the flourishing indigenous bacteria resulted in lower fecal pH and greater fecal acetate, propionate, and butyrate (SCFA) concentrations; all of which have been shown in other studies to help restore GI endothelial (gut lining) integrity and homeostasis.

Prebiotic soluble fibers are the food for existing “good bacteria”. Propol®A is a superior prebiotic soluble fiber proven in studies to help the natural microbiome flourish.

There are more than a thousand strains of bacteria that occupy the GI tract. Those who are studying Microbiome science emphasize the importance of Prebiotics to support and enhance the existing colonies of “good bacteria” in the GI tract – some even prefer their use to supplemented Probiotics. The GI environment must first be hospitable to colonization of bacteria supplied in probiotic supplements which is often not the case for a variety of reasons including stress and toxins from food such as pesticide and herbicide residues. In addition, due to the sheer number of strains – several thousand - that comprise a healthy Microbiome, a probiotic supplement can only enhance the number of “good bacteria” that it provides in the formula. The Prebiotic Propol®A fiber can nourish the all the strains present in the GI tract and give them what they need to be healthy and prosper and, in return, help support our health.

Healthy Bowel Function
Researchers have shown in other studies that due to its high viscosity and stability, Propol®A fiber thickens as it mixes with fluid in the GI tract and doesn’t degrade in GI conditions. This allows Propol®A to provide support for optimal environmental conditions in the GI tract, mucosal membrane development and maintenance support, and nourishment as an extraordinary Prebiotic for the thousands of indigenous “good bacteria” strains that naturally inhabit the GI Tract.

Propol®A Glucomannon allows more water to remain in the stool which makes stools softer, larger, and easier to pass through the intestines. In a placebo-controlled, randomized, parallel, double-blind, crossover trial with doses of 3 grams/day and 4 grams/day of Propol®A  glucomannon, a positive impact was shown on intestinal habit with improved defecation frequency, stool characteristics, and ease of bowel movements when compared to placebo.Glucomannon has also been shown to reduce mouth-to-cecum transit time compared to placebo.

Other Health Benefits
Satiety and Weight Control – Soluble fiber becomes viscous and gel-like in the GI tract. This can create signals of fullness which could cause individuals to eat less. The studies show Propol®A reduces weight when compared to a placebo at 3 grams and 4 grams per day. Additionally there were reductions in body fat percentage and fat mass without a loss of fat-free mass or bone density.

Glucose and Lipid Metabolism – Propol®A slows the absorption of carbohydrates (sugars) which influences the release of insulin and the rate of fat storage. Studies on Propol®A demonstrate a positive impact on postprandial glucose handling and glucose metabolism. The studies also show an impact on cholesterol metabolism and reduction in circulating cholesterol likely due to the fact that soluble fiber reduces fat and cholesterol absorption from the GI tract and transports bile out of the GI tract with other waste. Also, the body will pull cholesterol from the bloodstream to make more bile when less bile acid is available.

Propol® technology is also used to take an active compound and make it into a sustained released composition from 2 hours to 12 hours due largely to its viscosity (over 100,000 mPa*s).

ResistAid® Larch Arbinogalactan
Arabinogalactans are soluble fibers found in many plants, but occur in particularly high concentrations in the larch tree.

The immune system is a highly complex and interrelated system that has two pathways to address foreign substances. The innate arm of the immune system is non-specific and targets anything that is viewed as foreign to the body whereas the adaptive system targets specific foreign substances. Both immune arms work together to protect the body against foreign substances.

Clinical study results indicate that larch arabinogalactan has the ability to modulate and support the two arms of the immune system in a positive manner through direct and indirect pathways within the gastrointestinal tract, so that the components of the different arms are optimized and appropriately respond when challenged by a foreign substance. The mechanisms of this effect have been investigated and seem to include not only the indirect effects of lactic acid-producing bacteria and bacterial constituents on immune cells, the production of short chain fatty acids (SCFAs) and binding to SCFA receptors on leucocytes, but also direct effects on components of the immune system. Specifically, the activity of natural killer cells, cytokines and macrophages may be supported by larch arabinogalactan supplementation. In addition, ResistAid® has antioxidant capacity which can be related to its content of polyphenolics.
Interestingly, several immune “enhancer” herbs contain significant amounts of arabinogalactan, such as Echinacea purpurea,  Baptisia tinctoria or Thuja occidentalis and researchers speculate that this is one of the main immune-activating principles in these herbs.

Natural Immune Function Support
ResistAid® supports natural immune function by increasing beneficial immune cell populations and/or increasing antibody production based on the immune stressor. ResistAid® has the ability to support and strengthen the appropriate immune response based on the immune stressor.

Support of Innate Immune Response - Support of Natural Killer Cells
Natural killer cells (NK cells) are a type of cytotoxic lymphocytes which constitute a major component of the innate immune system. NK cell activity is a functional marker for health. In mice, i.p. administration of arabinogalactan from larch during a 2-week period has been found to stimulate NK cell activity. Pre-treatment of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells with larch arabinogalactan has shown enhancement of NK cytotoxicity which was found to be governed by the cytokine network.

Support of Cytokines
Larch arabinogalactan can act as an inducer of the production and/or the release of various cytokines. In cell culture, larch arabinogalactan induced an increased release of interferon gamma (IFN-gamma), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha), interleukin-1 beta (IL-1 beta) and interleukin-6 (IL-6). It was found that the IFN-gamma was most responsible for the observed enhancement of NK cytotoxicity.

Support of Macrophages
Macrophages are important in the body’s defenses. They originate from specific white blood cells called monocytes. Monocytes andmacrophages are phagocytes, meaning they destroy harmful organisms. Larch arabinogalactan administered to healthy human subjects in combination with a standardized Echinacea extract was found to significantly increase human circulating peripheral blood monocytes (PBMC). As shown in in vitro studies arabinogalactan from various sources can also activate macrophages.

Support of White Blood Cells
Research has shown that supplementation with larch arabinogalactan can increase total white blood cell counts, mostly by increasing the neutrophil concentration.

Support of Adaptive Immune Response - Antibody Production
Latest research shows that the immune benefits of ResistAid® additionally include the adaptive immune response, a response to specific antigens. The study was designed to test the hypothesis that ingestion of ResistAid® would selectively enhance the antibody response to a vaccine in healthy adults. Vaccination studies of this type serve as a model to study the effect of nutraceutical supplementation on the overall immune function. The group that ingested ResistAid® demonstrated a higher IgG Ab (immunoglobulin G antibody) response to the vaccine than the placebo group in two Ab subtypes during the 10 weeks following vaccination. The study further showed that ResistAid® may have an immunomodulatory effect, meaning it supports the appropriate response to an antigen without indiscriminately enhancing other arms of the immune system that would not be expected to respond.

Natural Antioxidant Properties
Dietary antioxidants, including polyphenolic compounds, are regarded as effective nutrients in the prevention of health concerns related to oxidative stress. Phenolics or polyphenolics are responsible for most of the antioxidant capacity in fruits, vegetables and most botanical antioxidant supplements. It is recognized that polyphenolic flavonoids are able to scavenge different reactive oxygen radicals, such as hydroxyl and superoxide radicals. The polyphenolic flavonoids present in ResistAid® include taxifolin and quercetin, which have been shown to display a wide range of biochemical properties, including antioxidant and chemoprotective effects.

ResistAid® Larch Arbinogalactan

Arabinogalactans are soluble fibers found in many plants, but occur in particularly high concentrations in the larch tree.
The immune system is a highly complex and interrelated system that has two pathways to address foreign substances. The innate arm of the immune system is non-specific and targets anything that is viewed as foreign to the body whereas the adaptive system targets specific foreign substances. Both immune arms work together to protect the body against foreign substances.

Clinical study results indicate that larch arabinogalactan has the ability to modulate and support the two arms of the immune system in a positive manner through direct and indirect pathways within the gastrointestinal tract, so that the components of the different arms are optimized and appropriately respond when challenged by a foreign substance. The mechanisms of this effect have been investigated and seem to include not only the indirect effects of lactic acid-producing bacteria and bacterial constituents on immune cells, the production of short chain fatty acids (SCFAs) and binding to SCFA receptors on leucocytes, but also direct effects on components of the immune system. Specifically, the activity of natural killer cells, cytokines and macrophages may be supported by larch arabinogalactan supplementation. In addition, ResistAid® has antioxidant capacity which can be related to its content of polyphenolics.
Interestingly, several immune “enhancer” herbs contain significant amounts of arabinogalactan, such as Echinacea purpurea,  Baptisia tinctoria or Thuja occidentalis and researchers speculate that this is one of the main immune-activating principles in these herbs.

Natural Immune Function Support
ResistAid® supports natural immune function by increasing beneficial immune cell populations and/or increasing antibody production based on the immune stressor. ResistAid® has the ability to support and strengthen the appropriate immune response based on the immune stressor.

Support of Innate Immune Response - Support of Natural Killer Cells
Natural killer cells (NK cells) are a type of cytotoxic lymphocytes which constitute a major component of the innate immune system. NK cell activity is a functional marker for health. In mice, i.p. administration of arabinogalactan from larch during a 2-week period has been found to stimulate NK cell activity. Pre-treatment of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells with larch arabinogalactan has shown enhancement of NK cytotoxicity which was found to be governed by the cytokine network.

Support of Cytokines
Larch arabinogalactan can act as an inducer of the production and/or the release of various cytokines. In cell culture, larch arabinogalactan induced an increased release of interferon gamma (IFN-gamma), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha), interleukin-1 beta (IL-1 beta) and interleukin-6 (IL-6). It was found that the IFN-gamma was most responsible for the observed enhancement of NK cytotoxicity.

Support of Macrophages
Macrophages are important in the body’s defenses. They originate from specific white blood cells called monocytes. Monocytes andmacrophages are phagocytes, meaning they destroy harmful organisms. Larch arabinogalactan administered to healthy human subjects in combination with a standardized Echinacea extract was found to significantly increase human circulating peripheral blood monocytes (PBMC). As shown in in vitro studies arabinogalactan from various sources can also activate macrophages.

Support of White Blood Cells
Research has shown that supplementation with larch arabinogalactan can increase total white blood cell counts, mostly by increasing the neutrophil concentration.

Support of Adaptive Immune Response - Antibody Production
Latest research shows that the immune benefits of ResistAid® additionally include the adaptive immune response, a response to specific antigens. The study was designed to test the hypothesis that ingestion of ResistAid® would selectively enhance the antibody response to a vaccine in healthy adults. Vaccination studies of this type serve as a model to study the effect of nutraceutical supplementation on the overall immune function. The group that ingested ResistAid® demonstrated a higher IgG Ab (immunoglobulin G antibody) response to the vaccine than the placebo group in two Ab subtypes during the 10 weeks following vaccination. The study further showed that ResistAid® may have an immunomodulatory effect, meaning it supports the appropriate response to an antigen without indiscriminately enhancing other arms of the immune system that would not be expected to respond.

Natural Antioxidant Properties
Dietary antioxidants, including polyphenolic compounds, are regarded as effective nutrients in the prevention of health concerns related to oxidative stress. Phenolics or polyphenolics are responsible for most of the antioxidant capacity in fruits, vegetables and most botanical antioxidant supplements. It is recognized that polyphenolic flavonoids are able to scavenge different reactive oxygen radicals, such as hydroxyl and superoxide radicals. The polyphenolic flavonoids present in ResistAid® include taxifolin and quercetin, which have been shown to display a wide range of biochemical properties, including antioxidant and chemoprotective effects.

CurQfen®

Curcuminoid delivery system proven to effectively deliver free unconjugated curcuminoids and their powerful anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant properties to organ tissues and cells.

Curcuminoids, the natural yellow pigment of curry spice, turmeric, has many health benefits owing to its powerful anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and anti-carcinogenic properties.

However, the major limiting factor is its poor oral bioavailability owing to its high hydrophobicity, insolubility, and instability under gastrointestinal conditions.
Although many studies on curcumin attest to its overwhelming potential, curcumin alone is difficult for the body to absorb.

What good are Curcumin’s impressive capabilities if it simply passes through the GI tract unabsorbed by the body?

Most of the commercially available curcumin products are poorly absorbed and simply pass through the GI tract and excreted. Tissue delivery and cellular uptake of any substance, especially poorly absorbed unformulated curcuminoids, is very crucial for the functional benefits and therapeutic efficacy at the tissue and cell level.

In response, researchers have derived a new benchmark in curcumin bioavailability as the “free unconjugated (curcumin, demethoxycurcumin and bisdemethoxycurcumin) curcuminoids delivery and cell uptake” based on a standardized and validated UPLC-ESI-MS/MS method for analysis (as per ICH guidelines) for the investigation of pharmacokinetics of free curcuminoids in various organ tissues and cells.

Of important note is that the benchmark addresses “free unconjugated curcuminoids” since they are likely what impart most of the powerful anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant, and anti-carcinogenic effects of curcumin. Further, many formulations are shown to be bioavailable, delivering curcuminoids as their glucuronide and sulfate conjugates, but the delivery of free curcuminoids has always been considered as difficult and, perhaps, not feasible at the organ tissue and cellular level.

While modern research is heading toward the NANO curcumin injection formulations to achieve this goal, CurQfen® – a 100% natural food grade formulation of curcumin using fenugreek soluble dietary fiber as “curcumagalactomannosides”, (US patented) already achieved this goal by delivering significantly high levels of biologically-active, free curcuminoids into tissues and cells, including the brain, with dramatic bioavailability enhancements over other current formulations of curcumin glucuronide or sulfate conjugates.

CurQfen®, a 100% natural food grade formulation of curcumin, was found to dramatically increase bioavailability and membrane permeability of free curcuminoids to unleash the powerful anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and anti-carcinogenic properties of curcumin and make them available to the body.

CurQfen® - a 100% natural food grade formulation of curcumin using fenugreek soluble dietary fiber as ‘curcumagalactomannosides’ (US patented),using the patent pending, state-of-the-art FenuMAT™ Technology. FenuMAT™ Technology provides targeted delivery of plant-derived chemical substances by creating an encapsulation effect for intestinal protection and absorption. It also produces an adhesive characteristic which allows curcuminoids to stick to the lining of the GI tract, increasing the duration of high blood levels of curcumin. FenuMAT™ Technology achieved significantly high levels of biologically active free curcuminoids into the organ tissues including the brain, with an average enhancement in bioavailability of 25-fold compared over regular curcumin.

Curcuminoid levels in intestinal mucosa 24+ hours post administration was 12x higher - slow gastrointestinal transit & better gastro retentive properties (may benefit gastrointestinal malignancy). CurQfen® inhibits production of inflammatory-causing prostaglandin E2 - plausible role in chronic inflammatory events such as Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis.

CurQfen® delivers the bioactive free unconjugated curcuminoids into the brain, GI tract, and other organ tissues in addition to its enhanced plasma bioavailability.

#Absorption and organ tissue distribution of the bioactive form of a substance is very crucial for the functional benefits/therapeutic efficacy at the target site. While most of the formulations of curcumin deliver the conjugated metabolites of curcumin in plasma with no evidence of tissue distribution, CurQfen® has been shown to deliver significantly high levels of free unconjugated curcuminoids (curcumin, demethoxycurcumin and bisdemethoxycurcumin) into the brain, GI tract and other organ tissues, in addition to its 25-fold enhancement in plasma bioavailability. Well-designed UPLC-ESI-MS/MS study conducted as per ICH guidelines was recently published in the Journal of Functional Foods, indicating its importance in the light of the recent study that the major metabolites of curcumin, namely, mono and di-glucuronides, possess no anti-proliferative and anti-inflammatory effects.

Studies show CurQfen® has 25 times more absorption in vivo & 15.8 times the bioavailability in human studies than standard curcuminoids.CurQfen’s® high absorption potential and repeatedly proven ability to lower inflammation markers and inhibit cancer growth shows great potential for anyone suffering from any number of gastrointestinal disorders.

IMMUNE ASSIST MICRON™ - A Medicinal Mushroom Immune Enhancer

Immune Assist Micron™ is a technologically advanced breakthrough immune modulation support ingredient.

Research shows Immune Assist Micron™ activates 260 different classes of immune cells, including the NK cells, T-cells, Macrophages and many others.
Research in yeast beta glucans uncovered the great potential for immune enhancers, but problems with their absorption, breakdown, and deactivation of the yeast beta glucans by stomach acid, as well as their limited bioavailability in humans, reduced the potential offered by this amazing class of compounds.
However, recent advances in the science of Immune Modulation Therapy have led to improvements in beta glucan and heteropolysaccharide chemistry, absorption, and bioavailability, making Immune Assist Micron™ a very potent immune modulation ingredient.

Immune Assist Micron™ is a combination of over 200 highly purified, immune-active High Molecular Weight (HMW) Heteropolysaccharides and Beta 1,3-1,6 triple right-hand helix Beta Glucans. It is not derived from brewer's yeast, but rather from six closely related organisms.

Immune Assist Micron™ is produced from the following 100% USDA Certified Organic, Certified Kosher, biotech lab cultivated, full spectrum, non-GMO medicinal mushroom species: Agaricus blazei - Cordyceps sinensis - Grifola frondosa - Ganoderma lucidum - Coriolus [trametes] versicolor - Lentinula edodes.

Agaricus blazei Murill
Agaricus blazei Murill activates white blood cells such as macrophages, dendritic cells, granulocytes, and natural killer cells in the innate immune system.

Cordyceps sinensis
Cordyceps improves immune response and increases lymphocyte and NK cell activity. Natural killer (NK) cells are immune cells that protect us from tumors and viruses.

Lentinula edodes (Shitake)
Shiitake mushrooms are important to support immune response.  They contain many chemical compounds that protect your DNA from oxidative damage, which is partly why they’re so beneficial. Lentinan, for example, heals chromosome damage caused by anticancer treatments. Eritadenine substances can help support cardiovascular health.

Grifola frondosa (Hen-of-the-Woods) – Maitake
Maitake has long been included by the Chinese and the Japanese in their curative herbal medications that stimulate the immune system. This is evident because they both refer to it as the Medicinal Mushroom.

Ganoderma lucidum (Reishi)
Reishi is a well-known immune system modulator. It contains very strong antioxidants and is an anti-inflammatory.

Coriolus versicolor (Turkey Tail)
Turkey Tail improves the immune system by stimulating lymphocyte cells and natural killer cell activity. Natural killer (NK) cells protect us from tumors and viruses.

Each of these mushroom species offers slightly different polysaccharide structures, which activate many more types of immune cells than just simple beta glucans do.

While the earlier yeast beta glucans activated only the Natural Killer (NK) cells, research shows Immune Assist Micron™ activates all 260 different classes of immune cells, including the NK cells, T-cells, Macrophages, and many others.

SUSTAMINE®(L-ALANYL-L-GLUTAMINE)

A Revolutionary Di-Peptide that combines pure L-Glutamine and L-Alanine to create an ingredient more effective than Glutamine alone, supporting Intestinal Integrity and Healthy Immune System Function

Intestinal Integrity and Function
Sustamine® promotes the integrity and optimal function of the intestinal barrier. Sustamine® has also been shown to help protect the integrity of the gastrointestinal tract and support healthy gastrointestinal tract and liver function. Sustamine® supports maintenance of healthy intestinal cells and supports maintenance of healthy intestine function.

Glutamine is the chief source of energy for the cells of the intestinal lining. Sustamine® provides additional glutamine stores that serve as intestinal fuel.
In addition, damage to the intestines can lead to debilitated defense mechanisms, including increased intestinal permeability. Sustamine® helps maintain the integrity of mucosa and prevents the translocation of bacteria and toxins from the intestinal tract to the circulatory system.

Healthy Immune Function
Sustamine® also supports the immune system. Glutamine has been shown to modulate immune function and stimulate immune response when needed.
Sustamine® can modulate the function of IL-8, a chemical messenger that regulates the immune response.

Sustamine® provides glutamine for healthy lymphocyte function.
When the body is stressed, the hormone cortisol is released into your blood. High cortisol levels can lower stored L-glutamine, impairing the function of the immune system. Resupplying L-glutamine has been shown to effectively modulate the body’s immune response.

Other benefits of Sustamine® include glutamine’s ability to promote protein synthesis and stimulate immune action as well as L-alanine’s ability to supply energy and promote healthy hydration.

Sustamine® stability compared to Glutamine
Sustamine® is stable, soluble and taste-free. However, Glutamine begins to degrade when mixed with liquids. Sustamine® unique dipeptide form resists degradation and ensures that patients actually receive the amount listed on the label. Sustamine® is also stable in combination with other actives, such as vitamins or electrolytes.

 

Setria®

Setria® Glutathione is a tripeptide consisting of three amino acids: glutamate, cysteine, and glycine. It is found in varying degrees in all cells, tissues, body fluids, and organ systems. However, its greatest concentration is in the first 1/3 of the intestine after the stomach and in the liver because of the important detoxification and antioxidant functions that are required there.

Glutathione is recognized as the great protector. Without glutathione, each cell would become so ravaged by free radicals that it would disintegrate. A lack of glutathione would also negatively affect the liver and immune system. By fighting free radicals, glutathione supports the liver so it can carry out its job of detoxifying the body. Likewise, preventing free radical damage in the GUT also helps to promote a healthy immune system.

Our bodies produce glutathione internally. But, in our modern world of stress, poor diets, toxin exposure, etc. the body's need for glutathione is outpaced by its ability to produce it. In the past, glutathione supplements have had limited success because it was broken down or because of limited absorption.

Why Setria Glutathione is different?
Setria® Glutathione is L-Glutathione or Reduced Glutathione is an oral glutathione supplement and is superior to other glutathione products based on the following features:
Clinically studied to increase blood glutathione levels and support the immune system
A pure and safe material with an assay value of 99.0% - 101.0%
Produced by a patented, fermentation process
Contains no additives, artificial flavors or preservatives
Has no animal origin material (vegetarian)
Meets specification for the new USP monograph (USP)
No TSE/BSE risk
GMP-compliant manufacturing
Allergen-free
Kosher

PepZin GI®

(Patented Zinc L-Carnosine Complex) A great choice for supporting gastric health.
PepZinGI® is a specific chelate of zinc that has been the subject of over 100 scientific studies, including at least 38 clinical trials, for its role in supporting stomach health.

Marginal Zinc Deficiency Exacerbates Experimental Colitis Induced by Dextran Sulfate Sodium in Rats J. Nutr. June 2011 141:6 1077-1082;
Research suggests it helps modulate the growth of Helicobacter pylori and promote healing of the stomach lining.

The dipeptide L-carnosine is found mainly in the muscles and zinc is an essential trace element which plays an important role in the body, for example at the active centers of over 300 enzymes.

Both L-carnosine and zinc have common pharmacological properties such as anti-oxidant, membrane stabilizing, immunomodulating, and tissue repairing effects, and their anti-ulcerogenic effects in animals have also been investigated independently.

It also has been clinically demonstrated to relieve symptoms of indigestion, such as: heartburn, nausea, upset stomach, belching, bloating, in appetence, and diarrhea. Unlike some conventional products, PepZinGI® provides relief of indigestion without suppressing stomach acid and possibly impacting digestive function. Different from some competitive nutritional supplements, PepZinGI®, a patented zinc-carnosine chelate, has also been shown to be three times more effective than zinc-sulfate and L-carnosine alone.

PepZinGI® enhances stomach lining integrity, owing to its free-radical-quenching capability as well as its effects on growth factor and immunomodulating activities.

When zinc is complexed to L-carnosine, it dissociates in the stomach at a slower rate. This prolonged existence allows it to maintain its gastric healing effect over a longer period of time.

Because of their fast diffusion rates, non-molecular combinations (admixtures) of L-Carnosine and Zinc are far less effective.*

The mineral zinc in PepZinGI® is a critical component to a number of physiological processes in our bodies. Some of these functions include growth and metabolism of cells, healing of wounds, and maintenance of carbohydrate and lipid metabolism.

PepZinGI® may also be able to favorably maintain the bacterial balance of the stomach and GI tract. Studies suggest that the PepZinGI® may have effects on certain strains of harmful bacteria and, therefore, may be able to help maintain a GI environment that is favorable to health. By supporting the bacterial balance in the stomach, PepZinGI® can help maintain a healthy mucosal lining.

PepZinGI® has been studied for its ability to prevent free radical damage to gastric cells. The authors concluded that the zinc compound directly protected gastric mucosal cells from oxidant stress and alcohol induced damage.

Additional research further confirms the gastro-protective effects of PepZinGI®. The authors concluded that the zinc compound exerted a beneficial protective effect against monochloramine-induced stomach lesions. 0

The PepZinGI® has also been shown to slow the development of aspirin induced stomach damage in rats. These results may suggest a role for PepZinGI® in protecting gastric cells by occasionally reducing the levels of certain cytokines in minor inflammation of the stomach.  

The proprietary chelation process along with excellent scientific research makes PepZinGI® a great choice for supporting gastric health.

Selenium

Essential for normal immune functions and plays a critical role in gut health.

Dietary intake of the micronutrient selenium is essential for normal immune functions. Selenium incorporated into selenoproteins that function to modulate pathways involved in inflammation. Epidemiological studies have suggested an inverse association between selenium levels and inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), which includes Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis that can potentially progress to colon cancer.

Selenium affects the gut flora and helps modify the inflammatory response in the gut. Selenium deficiency increases inflammation and oxidative stress; the resulting damage to the lining of the gut can actually contribute to abnormal intestinal permeability (“leaky gut”). Here’s a picture from the article:
Selenium deficiency is associated with a higher risk of Inflammatory Bowel Disease (including Crohn’s Disease and Ulcerative Colitis). The authors suggested that this might be a two-way street: IBD can contribute to selenium deficiency, and selenium deficiency can make the disease worse. And the study even suggested that inflammation caused by selenium deficiency can be one factor in the higher rates of colon cancer among patients with IBD.

Organic Sunflower Phospholipids

Phosphatidylcholine (PC), Phosphatidylinositol (PI), Phosphatidylethanolamine (PE), and Phosphatidylserine (PS) Sourced from Sunflower Lecithin The Lecithin Phosphatides - Phosphatidylcholine (PC), phosphatidylserine (PS), Phosphatidylinositol (PI), and Phosphatidylethanolamine(PE) - represent the backbone of most biological membranes and are essential in repairing and restoring the integrity of existing cells and making new functioning cells to support the healing processes.

Lecithin Phosphatides are considered a keystone in the construction of new cell membranes to make new cells and repair existing cells essential for healing. Phosphatides also prevent the hardening of cell membranes.

Lecithin phospholipids are also used to construct and repair mitochondrial membranes that are damaged due to oxidative stress.
Organic, Non-GMO, High-quality Sunflower source of Phosphatides also have been shown to help strengthen the GI/Brain Connection through repairing cell signaling, restoring cell receptor activity and production of neurotransmitters in the brain and nervous tissue.

Phospholipids also play a very important role when it comes to the health of the liver and detoxification processes. The liver is prone to becoming over burdened with excessive fats, these fats, or lipids, can then accumulate within the liver instead of being excreted from the body via the bowels as they should be. Phosphatides emulsify the fats so they can be excreted along with all the fat-soluble toxins stored in the fat. Phosphatides help prevent this excessive build-up of fats and keep the liver in good working condition.

Sunflower lecithin phosphatides accelerate the benefits of other ingredients in BioSpectrum GI and make them more synergistic. The phosphatides are able to facilitate the transit and absorption of ingredients in supplements through their ability to link together in a liposome-like or cocoon-like fashion similar to a “mini cell membrane” and protect ingredients through stomach acid.

Phosphatidylcholine(PC) is a powerful antioxidant, as well as being the major lipid of cell membranes and blood proteins. PC has been shown to play a vital role in many important areas including maintaining cell structure, fat metabolism, memory, nerve signaling, as a precursor to important neurotransmitters, and liver health. PC helps with prevention and treatment of various forms of liver disease and toxicity. PC protects liver cells from viral damage, reduces fibrosis, and prevents cell death from drugs, alcohol and other chemical toxins.

Phosphatidylinositol
Phosphatidylinositol is critical for intracellular signaling and anchoring of carbohydrates and proteins to outer cellular membranes.

Phosphatidylethanolamine
Phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) is a phospholipid found in all living organisms. Together with phosphatidylcholine (PC), phosphatidylserine (PS) and phosphatidylinositol (PI), PE represents the backbone of most biological membranes. PE is the second-most abundant phospholipid in mammalian membranes etc. and may be a potent autophagy induction agent. PEs play a role in membrane fusion and in disassembly of the contractile ring during cytokinesis in cell division. PE regulates membrane curvature. PE acts as an important precursor, substrate, or donor in several biological pathways. In human physiology, they are found particularly in nervous tissue such as the white matter of brain, nerves, neural tissue, and in spinal cord, where they make up 45% of all phospholipids.

QUERCETIN

Quercetin is a potent Anti-Inflammatory, Antioxidant and Redox agent that has demonstrated ability in TER studies (Transepithelial Electrical Resistance) to enhance intestinal barrier (tight junction) function through assembly of Zonnulin Occludens (ZO2), occludin and claudin-13

Quercetin is the bioflavonoid that gives Superfoods like garlic, blueberries, kale, red onions and green tea their “Super” power. These and other Superfoods like are loaded with Quercetin. Quercetin is both a potent anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory. Its antioxidant properties as a “polyphenolic antioxidant” help reduce or prevent oxidative stress and the damage done to cells by free radicals – this damage is especially extreme in inflamed tissue.
Quercetin has also demonstrated its ability to enhance intestinal barrier function in recent studies.

Researchers demonstrated the promotive effects of quercetin on the intestinal barrier function in human intestinal Caco-2 cell monolayers. Transepithelial electrical resistance (TER) across the monolayers increased rapidly during incubation with quercetin showing demonstrates that quercetin enhances the intestinal barrier function through the assembly of Zonnulin Occludens (ZO-2), occludin, and claudin-1 by inhibiting PKCδ and the increase in claudin-4 expression has an additional role after 12 hours. Thus Quercetin promoted actin cytoskeletal association and expression of Tight Junction proteins through the inhibition of PKCδ.

These results were published in the Journal of Nutrition, 20093

Oxidative stress is present to varying degrees in all of us, but it is especially prevalent when we are exposed to higher levels of emotional or mental states of Stress, poor diet, lack of sleep, or exposure to environmental toxins to name a few.

Inflammation plays a very strong role in the root of many chronic diseases. Quercetin is a powerful ally to help reduce inflammation. Quercetin can help down-regulate and suppress inflammatory pathways. Preliminary studies indicate that flavonoids may also affect anti-inflammatory mechanisms via their ability to inhibit reactive oxygen or nitrogen compounds.

The University of Maryland reports that quercetin can help stabilize the release of histamine. In fact, in vitro studies with quercetin have shown this anti-inflammatory activity through a decrease in interleukin-6, a cell signaling protein which is active in inflammation. Histamine and other allergic and inflammatory mediators released from immune cells - mast cells and basophils - increases the permeability of capillaries. It makes these tiny blood vessels “leaky,” releasing fluids, white blood cells and proteins involved in inflammation.

Histamine release may also be involved in development of a leaky gut, which has been implicated as a cause of allergies, autoimmune disorders and body-wide inflammation.

Regarding mast cell histamine release, Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS) sufferers may actually be having an allergic reaction in their guts to certain foods called gastric-mediated allergy.

More people may have this allergic type of IBS condition than commonly realized. In one study, 34 out of 44 people with IBS had more mast cell infiltration of their colon and histamine release than people without IBS. And people with IBS are about twice as likely to have other allergy symptoms, such as allergic rhinitis or eczema.

RUTIN

A bioflavonoid that can help maintain collagen production and reduce mucosal interleukin-1 beta (IL-1B) levels, as well as IL-1A, another cell signaling protein, known to cause auto-inflammatory syndromes.

Rutin, a bioflavonoid found primarily in fruit and fruit rinds, may help maintain collagen production, increase capillary strength, and improve the elasticity of arterial walls.

Recent studies have shown rutin to significantly reduce mucosal interleukin-1 beta (IL-1B) levels. IL-1A, another cell signaling protein, can cause a number of different auto-inflammatory syndromes.

One test in particular suggests rutin as useful in the management of inflammatory bowel disease. For example, rutin has shown to improve colitis by reducing the disease activity index, showing a 54% lower alkaline phosphatase activity, and decreasing secretion of pro-inflammatory proteins.

Organic Prune Powder

Rich in Anti-Oxidants and Fiber and unique phytonutrients and other components with mild laxative effects.

Prunes are a dried version of the European plum. Prunes are a natural digestive remedy because of three components: fiber, sorbitol (a sugar alcohol that can loosen the stool) and a natural laxative compound called diphenylisatin. With excellent ORAC levels prunes contain large amounts of vitamin A, copper, and potassium as well as a high content of unique phytonutrients. They are particularly high in two unique phytonutrients called neochlorogenic and chlorogenic acid. Numerous studies show that these phytonutrients help to prevent damage to cells particularly when it comes to the oxidation of phospholipid molecules in the body. All of our cell membranes, as well as our brain cells, are largely made up of phospholipids. Prunes are rich in beta-carotene and are powerful antioxidants. These compounds have also been found to inhibit the oxidation of LDL cholesterol in the body making them an important factor in the prevention of chronic diseases. Prunes help promote healthy blood pressure levels as well as stronger skeletal and heart health.

QING DAI

Qing Dai, also known as Indigo naturalis, has a long history in traditional Chinese medicine to treat inflammation primarily in the stomach and digestive tract.
Recent studies show Qing Dai to possess strong antioxidant activity and significant clinical effectiveness in patients with intractable ulcerative colitis who failed to respond to conventional medications1 and help decrease colonic tissue damage through its powerful antioxidant properties.

CAT’S CLAW

Cat’s Claw, a medicinal plant from the Amazon River basin, has been widely used for inflammatory disorders.
Studies have shown Cat's Claw to:
suppress TNF-alpha production, a cell signaling protein involved in promoting systemic inflammation.
help revitalize the immune system.
relax the muscles of the intestines.
lower blood pressure by dilating blood vessels.

SLIPPERY ELM BARK

Slippery Elm Bark and Marshmallow Root have been used for centuries in traditional herbal medicine dues to their mucilage content. Mucilage is a gelatinous substance that becomes slicker when combined with water.

According to The University of Maryland, this mucilage helps increase mucus secretion in the GI tract by stimulating reflux nerve endings. This additional mucus may help protect against ulcers and excess acidity. It also contains anti-inflammatory properties that can help soothe an upset stomach, inflamed esophagus, and irritated bowels.

Slippery elm (Ulmus fulva) has been used as an herbal remedy in North America for centuries. Native Americans used slippery elm in healing salves for wounds, boils, ulcers, burns, and skin inflammation. It was also taken orally to relieve coughs, sore throats, diarrhea, and stomach and intestinal problems.

MARSHMALLOW ROOT

Marshmallow (Althea officinalis) -- the herb, not the white puffy confection roasted over a campfire -- has been used for more than 2,000 years as both a food and a medicine.

A recent study confirmed that marshmallow preparations helps soothe irritated mucous membranes due to:
Asthma
Indigestion
Bronchitis
Stomach ulcers
Common cold/sore throat
Skin inflammation
Cough
Inflammatory bowel diseases (such as Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis)

Sensoril®Ashwagandha

Sensoril® is the best-selling Ashwagandha extract in the market. It is derived from a unique blend of the leaves and roots of Withania somnifera and is available as organic and non-GMO. A recent study confirmed that marshmallow preparations helps soothe irritated mucous membranes due to:
Sensoril® has been in the United States market for more than twelve years with studied efficacy and safety. It is a very effective "Adaptogen" helping to reduce the effects of stress.

Supports healthy energy levels and increase stamina
Reduce anxiety and depression
Supports healthy blood sugars
Boost Immunity
Supports healthy mental cognition
Skin inflammation
Supports cardiovascular health
Supports healthy endothelial function and a healthy lipid profile
Backed by ten clinical studies

Organic Amla Fruit

Organic Amla fruit is also known as Indian gooseberry, amalika or amlaki A native to India, the amla fruit could be considered one of the most medicinal plants used in Ayurvedic medicine. It is very rich in Vitamin C (30% more than oranges), and contains many minerals, tannins, polyphenols, flavonoids as well as phytochemicals, Calcium, Phosphorus, Iron, Carotene and Vitamin B Complex. According to a 2010 study researching the total antioxidant content of over 3100 foods worldwide, the Amla berry turned out to be the leader by far with 262 mmol/100g which is 200 times the antioxidant content of blueberries! Antioxidants are linked to the elimination of free radicals associated with aging.

REFERENCES

The information on the ingredients above was reliant on but not limited to following clinical trials and professional opinions.

ResistAid® Larch Arbinogalactan
1. Hauer J Anderer FA. Mechanism of stimulation of human natural killer cytotoxicity by arabinogalactan from Larix occidentalis. Cancer Immunol Immunother (1993) 36(4):237-44
2. Roitt I. Essential Immunology. Balckwell Scientific Publications, 6th Edition
3. McNeil M Wallner SJ Hunter SW Brennan PJ. Demonstration that the galactosyl and arabinosyl residues in the cell wall arabinogalactan of Mycobacterium leprae and Mycobacterium tuberculosis are furanoid. Carbohydr Res (1987 Sep 1) 166(2):299-308
4. Rohringer R Chong J Gillespie R Harder DE Gold-conjugated arabinogalactan-protein and other lectins as ultrastructural probes for the wheat/stem rust complex. Histochemistry (1989) 91(5):383-93
5. Pennell RI Knox JP Scofield GN Selvendran RR Roberts K. A family of abundant plasma membrane-associated glycoproteins related to the arabinogalactan proteins is unique to flowering plants. J Cell Biol (1989 May) 108(5):1967-77
6. Kikuchi S Ohinata A Tsumuraya Y Hashimoto Y Kaneko Y Matsushima H. Production and characterization of antibodies to the
beta-(1_>6)- galactotetraosyl group and their interaction with arabinogalactan proteins. Planta (1993) 190(4):525-35
7. Susheelamma NS Rao MV. Isolation and characterization of arabinogalactan from black gram (Phaseolus mungo). J Agric Food Chem (1978 Nov-Dec) 26 (6):1434-7
8. Chen CG Pu ZY Moritz RL Simpson RJ Bacic A Clarke AE Mau SL. Molecular cloning of a gene encoding an arabinogalactan-protein from pear (Pyrus communis) cell suspension culture. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A (1994 Oct 25) 91(22):10305-9
9. Schindler T Bergfeld R Schopfer P. Arabinogalactan proteins in maize coleoptiles: developmental relationship to cell death during xylem differentiation but not to extension growth. Plant J (1995 Jan) 7(1):25-36
10. Baldo BA Neukom H Stone BA Uhlenbruck G. Reaction of some invertebrate and plant agglutinins and a mouse myeloma anti-galactin protein with an arabinogalactan from wheat. Aust J Biol Sci (1978) 31(2):149-160 1978

 

Lignite 
1. Samsel A and Seneff S. Glyphosate’s Suppression of Cytochrome P450 Enzymes and Amino Acid Biosynthesis by the Gut Microbiome: Pathways to Modern Diseases. Entropy 2013, 15:1416-1463

2. Gildea JJ, Roberts DA, Bush Z (2016) Protection against Gluten-mediated Tight Junction Injury with a Novel Lignite Extract Supplement. J Nutr Food Sci 6: 54

 

IMMULOX

Cesarone etal. (2007)Prevention of Influenza Episodes with Colostrum Compared with Vaccination in Healthy and High-Risk Cardiovascular

Subjects: The Epidemiologic Study in San Valentino, Clinical and Applied Thrombosis/Hemostasis 13(2):130-136.

4. Bishop GA, Haxhinasto SA, Stunz LL, Hostager BS. Antigen-specific B-lymphocyte activation. Crit Rev Immunol, 2003;23(3):149-97.

10. Francis, G. L., et al., Purification and partial sequence analysis of insulin-like growth factor-l (IGF-1) from bovine colostrum. Biochem. J. 1986. 233: p. 207-213.

11. Francis, G. L., et al., Insulin-like growth factors-l (IGF-1) and 2 (IGF-2) in bovine colostrum. Biochem. J. 1988. 251:p. 95-103.

16. Lawton, J. W. M., et al., Interferon synthesis by human colostral leukocytes. Arch. Dis. Childhood. 1979. 54: p.127-130.

18. Pizza G, Meduri R, De Vinci C, et al. Transfer factor prevents relapses in herpes keratitis patients: a pilot study. Biotherapy, 1994;8(1):63-8.

19. Pizza G, Viza D, De Vinci C, et al. Orally administered HSV-specific transfer factor (TF) prevents genital or labial herpes relapses. Biotherapy, 1996;9(1-3):67-72.

20. Meduri R, Campos E, Scorolli L, et al. Efficacy of transfer factor in treating patients with recurrent ocular herpes infections. Biotherapy, 1996;9(1-3):61-6.

21. Oda, S., et al., Insulin-like growth factor-l (IGF-1), growth hormone (GH), insulin and glucagon concentrations in bovine colostrum and in plasma of dairy cows and neonatal calves around parturition. Comp. Biochem. Physiol. 1989. 94A(4): p. 805-808.

23. Palmer,E.L. et al. Antiviral Activity of Colostrum and Serum Immunoglobulins A and G. J. Med. Virol. 5:123-129. 1980.

24. Orzechowska B, Janusz M, Domaraczenko B, Blach-Olszewska Z. Antiviral effect of proline-rich polypeptide in murine resident peritoneal cells. Acta Virol, 1998;42(2):75-8.

25. Van Hooijdonk AC, Kussendrager KD, Steijns JM. In vivo antimicrobial and antiviral activity of components in bovine milk and colostrum involved in non-specific defense. Br J Nutr, 2000;84 (Suppl 1):S127-34.

26. Ushijima H, Dairaku M, Honnma H, et al. [Immunoglobulin components and anti-viral activities in bovine colostrum.] Kansenshogaku Zasshi, 1990;64(3):274-9.

33. Clark, Daniel G. and Wyatt, Kaye. Colostrum, Life’s First Food. Salt Lake City:CNR Publications. 1996.

34. Jensen, Bernard. Colostrum: Man’s First Food, The White Gold Discovery. Escondido:Bernard Jensen, 1993.

38. Kohl, S. et al., Human colostral cytotoxicity: antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity against herpes simplex infected by colostral cells. Journal of Clinical Laboratory Immunology, 1, pp. 221-224.

 

SUSTAMINE

 

4. Harris, RC, et al., NBH: L-glutamine absorption is enhanced after ingestion of L-alanylglutamine compared with the free amino acid or wheat protein. Nutr Res 2012, doi:10.1016/j. nutres.2013.02.003.

5. Hoffman, JR, Stavsky H, Falk B: The effect of water restriction on anaerobic power and vertical jumping height in basketball players. Int J Sports Med 1995, 16:214-218.

6. Cruzat, V.F., M.M. Rogero, and J. Tirapegui, Effects of supplementation with free glutamine and the dipeptide alanyl-glutamine on parameters of muscle damage and inflammation in rats submitted to prolonged exercise. Cell Biochem Funct, 2010. 28(1): p. 24-30.

10. Castell, L., et al., Granule localization of glutaminase in human neutrophils andthe consequence of glutamine utilization for neutrophil activity. J Biol Chem,2004. 279(14): p. 13305-10.

12. Miller, A.L., Therapeutic considerations of L-glutamine: a review of the literature. Altern Med Rev, 1999. 4(4): p. 239-48.

13. Welbourne, T.C., Increased plasma bicarbonate and growth hormone after an oral glutamine load. Am J Clin Nutr, 1995. 61(5): p. 1058-61.

14. Braga-Neto, M.B., et al., Alanyl-glutamine and glutamine supplementation improves 5-fluorouracil-induced intestinal epithelium damage in vitro. Dig Dis Sci, 2008. 53(10): p. 2687-96.

15. Roth, E., Nonnutritive effects of glutamine. J Nutr, 2008. 138(10): p. 2025S-2031

16. Castell, L., et al., Granule localization of glutaminase in human neutrophils and the consequence of glutamine utilization for neutrophil activity. J Biol Chem, 2004. 279(14): p. 13305-10.

17. Newsholme, E.A., B. Crabtree, and M.S. Ardawi, Glutamine metabolism inlymphocytes: its biochemical, physiological and clinical importance. Q J ExpPhysiol, 1985. 70(4): p. 473-89.

21. Man-xi Bai, et. al., Effects of Alanyl-Glutamine on gut barrier function. BasicNutritional Investigation. 1996, 12(11,12): p.793-796.

22. Y. Li, et al., Clinical trial: prophylactic intravenous alanyl-glutamine reducesthe severity of gastrointestinal toxicity induced by chemotherapy – arandomized crossover study. Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics. 2008,30: p.452-458.

 

PepZin

 

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3. Walsh, CT; Sandstead, HH; Prasad, AS; Newberne, PM; Fraker, PJ: Environ. Health Perspect (1994), 102 Suppl 2, 5-46.

4. Yamakawa, A: Showa Igakkai Zasshi. (1975), 35(2), 113-126.

5. Cho, CH: Drug Dev. Res. (1989), 17(3), 185-197.

6. Yoshikawa, T; Naito, Y; Tanigawa, T; Yoneta, T; Kondo, M: Biochim. Biophys. Acta (1991), 1115(1), 15-22.

7. Cho, CH; Luk, CT; Ogle, CW: Life Sci. (1991), 49(23), PL189-PL194.

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13. Miyoshi A, et al. Clinical evaluation of Z-103 on gastric ulcer - a multicenter double-blind comparative study with cetraxate hydrochloride. Jpn PharmTher 1992;20(1):199-223.

14. Sugiyama T; Tanaka H; Kawai S: Journal of Bone and Mineral Metabolism (2000), 18(6), 335-338.

15. Ikui, A; Ikeda M; Yoshikawa T; Kudo I; Onoda K; Kida A: Jibiinkou (1999), 92(7), 801-804.

16. Takagi, H; Nagamine, T; Abe, T; Takayama, H; Sato, K; Otsuka, T; Kakizaki, S; Hashimoto, Y; Matsumoto, T; Kojima, A; Takezawa, J: Suzuki K; Sato S; Mori M. Journal of Viral Hepatitis (2001) 8(5) 367-71.

17. Takeda, S; Yoshikawa, T; Morita, Y; Yoshida, N; Kondo, M: J. Clin. Biochem. Nutr. (1999), 26(3), 213-225.

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19. Yoshikawa, T; Yamaguchi, T; Yoshida, N; Yamamoto, H; Kitazumi, S; Takahashi, S; Naito, Y; Kondo, M: Digestion (1997), 58(5), 464-468.

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21. Katayama, S; Nishizawa, K; Hirano, M; Yamamura, S; Momose, Y: J. Pharm. Pharm. Sci. (2000), 3(1), 114-117.

22. Nishimura, Y; Yamagishi, Y; Ando, K; Saito, T; Matsukura, T: Biomed. Res. Trace Elem. (2001), 12(2), 159-167.

23. Boldyrev, AA; Gallant, SC; Suhkich, GT: Biosci. Rep. (1999), 19 (6), 581-7.

24. Misawa T, et al. Clinical study of Z-103 - clinical effects on gastric ulcer and influence on endocrine function. Jpn PharmTher 1992; 20(1):245-254.

25. Kuwayama H, et al. Polaprezinc. Nippon Rinsho 2002 Feb; 60 Suppl 2:717-720.

26. Hiraishi H, et al. Polaprezinc protects gastric mucosal cells from noxious agents through antioxidant properties in vitro. Aliment Pharmacl Ther 1999;13:261-269.

27. Kato S, Nishiwaki H, et al. Mucosal ulcerogenic action of monochloramine in rat stomachs: effects of polaprezinc and sucralfate. Dig Dis Sci 1997;42(10):2156-2163.

28. Naito Y, et al. Effects of polaprezinc on lipid peroxidation, neutrophil accumulation, and TNF-alpha expression in rats with aspirin-induced gastric mucosal injury.

Dig Dis Sci 2001;46(4):845-851.

 

QUERCETIN

 

1. "Influence of Quercetin Supplementation on Disease Risk Factors in Community-Dwelling Adults" in Journal of the American Dietetic Association (2011)

2. Suzuki T, Hara H (2009) Quercetin enhances intestinal barrier function through the assembly of zonula [corrected] occludens-2, occludin, and claudin-1 and the expression of claudin-4 in Caco-2 cells. J Nutr 139: 965–974.

3. .^cIzzi V, Masuelli L, Tresoldi I, Sacchetti P, Modesti A, Galvano F, Bei R (2012). "The effects of dietary flavonoids on the regulation of redox inflammatory networks". Frontiers in bioscience (Landmark edition). 17 (7): 2396–2418. doi:10.2741/4061. PMID 22652788.

4. Masters SL, Simon A, Aksentijevich I, Kastner DL (2009). "Horror autoinflammaticus: the molecular pathophysiology of autoinflammatory disease (*)". Annu. Rev. Immunol. 27: 621–68. doi:10.1146/annurev.immunol.25.022106.141627. PMC 2996236 . PMID 19302049.

 

RUTIN

 

4“Rutin has intestinal anti-inflammatory effects in the CD4+ CD62L+ T cell transfer model of colitis” In Pharmacological Research (Dec. 2014)

 

QING DAI

 

1. Suzuki H1, Therapeutic efficacy of the Qing Dai in patients with intractable ulcerative colitis. World J Gastroenterol. 2013 May 7;19(17):2718-22. doi: 10.3748/wjg.v19.i17.2718. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23674882

2. http://cmjournal.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s13020-015-0061-x

 

CAT’S CLAW

 

1. Hardin SR. Cat's claw: an Amazonian vine decreases inflammation in osteoarthritis. Complement Ther Clin Pract. 2007 Feb;13(1):25-8.

2. Sandoval M, Charbonnet RM, Okuhama NN, et al. Cat's claw inhibits TNFalpha production and scavenges free radicals: role in cytoprotection. Free Radic Biol Med. 2000;29(1):71-78

 

Slippery Elm

 

Bock S. Integrative medical treatment of inflammatory bowel disease. Int J Integr Med. 2000;2:21-29.

Brown AC, Hairfield M, Richards DG, McMillin DL, Mein EA, Nelson CD. Medical nutrition therapy as a potential complementary treatment for psoriasis -- five case reports. Altern Med Rev. 2004;9:297-307.

Hawrelak JA, Myers SP. Effects of two natural medicine formulations on irritable bowel syndrome symptoms: a pilot study. J Altern Complement Med. 2010;16:1065-71.

Langmead L, Dawson C, Hawkins C, Banna N, Loo S, Rampton DS. Antioxidant effects of herbal therapies used by patients with inflammatory bowel disease: an in vitro study. Aliment Pharmacol Ther. 2002;16:197-205.

Rakel D. Rakel: Integrative Medicine, 3rd ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2012:43.

Rotblatt M, Ziment I. Evidence-based Herbal Medicine. Philadelphia, Penn: Hanley & Belfus, Inc.;2202:337-338.
https://umm.edu/health/medical/altmed/herb/slippery-elm

 

MARSHMALLOW

 

https://umm.edu/health/medical/altmed/herb/marshmallow
Basch E, Ulbricht C, Hammerness P, Vora M. Marshmallow (Althaea officinalis L.) monograph. J Herb Pharmacother. 2003;3(3):71-81.

Buechi S, Vogelin R, von Eiff MM, Ramos M, Melzer J. Open trial to assess aspects of safety and efficacy of a combined herbal cough syrup with ivy and thyme. Forsch Komplementarmed Klass Naturheilkd. 2005 Dec;12(6):328-332.

Blumenthal M, Goldberg A, Brinckmann J. Herbal Medicine: Expanded Commission E Monographs. Newton, MA: Integrative Medicine
Communications; 2000:244-248.

Brinker F. Herb Contraindications and Drug Interactions. 2nd ed. Sandy, OR: Eclectic Medical Publications; 1998:99.

Drake PM, de Moraes Madeira L, Szeto TH, Ma JK. Transformation of Althaea officinalis L. by Agrobacterium rhizogenes for the production of transgenic roots expressing the anti-HIV microbicide cyanovirin-N. Transgenic Res. 2013; 22(6):1225-1229.

Franz G. Polysaccharides in pharmacy. Current applications and future concepts. Planta Med. 1989; 55:493-497.

Newall C, Anderson L, Phillipson J. Herbal Medicines: A Guide for Health-care Professionals. London, England: Pharmaceutical Press; 1996:188.

Nosál'ova G, Strapková A, Kardösová A, Capek P, Zathurecký L, Bukovská E. [Antitussive action of extracts and polysaccharides of marsh mallow (Althea officinalis L., var. robusta)] [German]. Pharmazie. 1992;47(3): 224-226.

Rakel: Integrative Medicine, 3rd ed. Philadelphia, PA: Saunders, An Imprint of Elsevier; 2012.

Schulz V, Hansel R, Tyler V. Rational Phytotherapy: A Physicians' Guide to Herbal Medicine. 4th ed. Berlin, Germany: Springer; 2000:29,182.

Sutovska M, Nosalova G, Franova S, Kardosova A. The antitussive activity of polysaccharides from Althaea officinalis l., var. Robusta, Arctium lappa L., var. Herkules, and Prunus persica L., Batsch. Bratisl Lek Listy. 2007;108(2):93-99.

 

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